Dr Caballero-Anthony is a Professor of International Relations at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), and Head of the RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. She is also the former head of External Affairs of ASEAN.

Her research interests include regionalism and regional security in the Asia Pacific, non-traditional security threats, multilateral security cooperation and human security and international relations in Southeast Asia.